First Aid

Priorities of Casualty Treatment
Cardiac Arrest
Severe Hemorrhage (Bleeding)
Other Injuries/Illnesses


Critical four minutes
One of the most common causes of a road accident death is due to loss of oxygen supply. This is mostly caused by a blocked airway. Normally it takes less than four minutes for a blocked airway to cause death.

The "golden hour"
The first hour after the trauma is called the "golden hour". If proper first aid is given, road accident victims has a greater chance of survival and a reduction in the severity of their injuries.

How to check pulse?
Feel for a carotid (neck) pulse by placing the pads of your fingers in the groove beside the Adam's apple or the middle of the neck on a woman. You can check on either side of the neck. You must check the pulse for 10 seconds.

Note: When the body is in shock, it often shuts down the peripheral circulation, including the radial (wrist) pulse. Therefore it is not advised to check radial pulse.

Cardiac-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a combination of the Chest Compression procedure and Expired Air Resuscitation (EAR). Whichever method is used, the pulse must be checked after one minute and then at two minute intervals. Failure to do so may result in brain damage and lead to death.
Note: CPR must only be practiced on a revival dummy.

CPR for Infants
A child's bones are not properly formed and more delicate. There is a critical differences between giving CPR to adults and children which are as follows:

For children under the age of 1 year:
� Only use two fingers over the lower half of the breastbone
� Do not tilt head backwards
� Jut give small puffs, not full breaths as for adults
� EAR rate 20 breaths per minute
� 1 breath in 5 seconds
� Compression depth is one third depth of the chest

For children aged between 1 and 8 years:
� Use the heel of one hand only
� Give only half a breath
� Ratios & Rates are the same as for a 1 year old child
� Compression depth is one third depth of the chest